电影视频片段英文对白在线阅读
探索发现Artifacts Sacred Spaces01

本片片段阅读导航 本片英文对白阅读 本片英文对白下载 本片英文字幕下载 本片内容介绍

本段音频网址:

片段视频英文解说词

1
A very long time ago, far away in China,
2
a villager living along the banks of the Yellow River
3
built a simple mud hut to shelter his family.
4
Thousands of years later in the year 1420,
5
the empire's best craftsmen put the final touches
6
on the ultimate masterpiece of Chinese architecture -
7
the Temple of Heaven.
8
Chinese buildings evolved from simple shelters
9
into complex magnificent structures
10
with great swooping roofs, stately columns, and rich detail.
11
Between this simple mud hut and this amazingly complex structure -
12
its every detail full with cosmological symbolism -
13
is a tale of emperors, monks, scholars and genius craftsmen -
14
a story which explains an architectural tradition
15
of great beauty and flexibility.
16
And to start this story at the beginning, we have to leap back
17
two millennia,
18
to when the brilliant tyrant Qin Shihuang becomes the first emperor
19
of a unified China.
20
In 1938, an American fighter pilot flying over a remote part of China
21
spotted giant pyramid-like structures below.
22
In his excitement he took a photo
23
and declared to the world
24
that he had discovered a lost civilization.
25
What he discovered, however, weren't pyramids,
26
but massive tomb mounds.
27
And the grandest of them all was the tomb of the man who unified China.
28
Our story begins with the tomb of Qin Shihuang
29
the first emperor of China, who lived 200 years before Christ.
30
A brilliant warrior and tactician,
31
he annihilated all his rival states and created the imperial system
32
which survived until the year 1904.
33
And the grandeur of his tomb matched that of his ambitions:
34
For more than thirty years he used 700,000 workers-
35
probably more manpower than the pharaohs had assembled to build
36
the pyramids -
37
to re-construct his kingdom in the private underground world of
38
his tomb,
39
with palaces and courts for a hundred officials,
40
rooms containing countless gems,
41
rivers of mercury and candles which would never burn out.
42
They sat you can't take it with you,
43
but Qin Shihuang sure tried.
44
His tomb was guarded by hundreds of terracotta warriors,
45
but just as fascinating were the clay model houses that were found inside
46
his tomb. "
47
Because of their belief that people had to provide for their ancestors
48
in death,
49
the early Chinese buried their deceased with clay models of the
50
structures they depended on in life -
51
granaries, houses, watchtowers and the like.
52
These 2,000 year-old models are the only surviving examples of early
53
Chinese wooden architecture,
54
and from them we can see how houses were constructed around the time
55
of the first emperor.
56
These models show a type of wooden house that incredibly can still be
57
seen today.
58
So why did the ancient Chinese build in wood rather than stone, like
59
the ancient Europeans?
60
The availability of wood in the extensive forests of early China
61
was no doubt a major factor.
62
The ancient Chinese did know how to build with stone, and how to
63
use the arch...
64
and they used the arch extensively for tombs, gates and bridges.
65
And yet they rejected the stone arch
66
for building houses, temples and palaces.
67
To see why we can again find clue from the tomb of the first emperor.
68
Archaeologists recently excavated from the tomb a 2,000 year-old sword
69
that is still sharp as a razor.
70
The reason it is still sharp is because it is coated with chrome -
71
a fact that may not seem too amazing
72
until you realize that chromium wasn't invented until 1938-
73
the same year the tombs were spotted by that American pilot.
74
This means is that the ancient Chinese developed incredible metal-working
75
skills very early in their history,
76
and so they had metal woodworking tools at a very early date.
77
Stone can be used to fashion and work stone,
78
as early Britons must have done to build Stonehenge.
79
But iron tools were necessary for wood carving and joinery.
80
And with such tools, however primitive, wood construction was
81
much easier than construction in stone.
82
Western cultures began their architecture without iron tools.
83
So they started in stone and brick and continued building with these materials.
84
The Chinese, on the other hand, began building with wood and continued
85
to do so for 6,000 years,
86
starting with the basic Chinese house
87
which was first developed on the flood plain
88
of the yellow river.
89
In areas prone to flooding, this structure was raised on pilings.
90
In the central yellow river valley of China it rested on solid platform.
91
Stone bases for each column, twice the diameter of the column,
92
were placed on this platform,
93
then the column raised on top of this.
94
So, the elevation of a Chinese building has three elements:
95
the podium underneath,
96
the columns in between
97
and big roof resting on top of the columns.
98
Four columns form what is called a bay;
99
groups of bays then form the different types of buildings.
100
From the earliest times the Chinese separated the supporting
101
from the enclosing elements of a building.
102
This meant the interior columns supported the roof weight completely,
103
while the walls were just for privacy and protection from the elements.
104
In a country plagued by powerful earthquakes,
105
the Chinese didn't build solid walls,
106
which could be cracked and rent apart by an upheaval of the earth's crust,
107
but rather they built flexible structures without using glue or nails.
108
These structures could ride the heaving earth like a boat, shifting
109
and settling back,
110
with the platform acting almost like a raft.
111
Heavy roofs with tiles were supported by columns built of white fir
112
which was four times stronger than steel,
113
and six times more flexible than concrete.
114
It was the beginning of an architecture of great beauty, elegance
115
and practicality.
116
The first feature of a Chinese building
117
that usually impresses a visitor is the elegant,
118
sweeping and seemingly gigantic roof.
119
Western architecture, with its spires and Greek columns - and more
120
recently skyscrapers -
121
usually emphasizes the vertical.
122
And since the introduction of concrete, steel and glass,
123
modern Western architecture has remained a vertical architecture of
124
walls, facades, and invisible roofs.
125
Chinese architecture offers a delightful contrast.
126
The most expressive element is the roof,
127
with its great curving slope,
128
and the emphasis is on the horizontal.
129
The approaching pedestrian can see the whole roof,
130
even as he begins to enter the building.
131
While Europeans built their roofs using a truss system incorporating
132
diagonal beams,
133
the Chinese used a post and beam system; there are no diagonals.
134
The stepped shape allowed for the curvature of the roof.
135
Using this system roofs could be expanded to create buildings of
136
impressive scale.
137
The height of a building has never equaled status in China.
138
In the year 1747, the emperor Qianlong commissioned European missionaries
139
to design a summer palace in "the manner of European Barbarians".
140
The emperor had them build a two-story facade in front of traditional
141
one-story Chinese halls,
142
because the emperor had no wish 'to live in the air' like Europeans who,
143
as the emperor commented ' must be very poverty-stricken and lack land'
144
to live in such a fashion.
145
Instead of height, the rank and importance of Chinese buildings is
146
determined by the roof design.
147
One can see that this temple was patronized by the imperial family
148
by the yellow diamond on the roof.
149
Elaborate roof ornaments also denote the importance of a building.
150
The part that looks like the tail of a fish at either end of the main ridge
151
is known as the ridge-devouring beast:
152
the mythical son of the Sea dragon, able to whip up waves and create rain.
153
These ornaments were in fact symbolic fire extinguishers.
154
Along the sloping ridge there might also be a string of smaller animals:
155
nine for imperial buildings,
156
with the number of animals decreasing