探索发现-寻找亚特兰提斯Discovery Atlantis03

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The trade network of Tiwanaku operated differently.
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People did not buy and sell freely as they do today.
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All transactions were controlled by the kings of Tiwanaku
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in a kind of State monopoly.
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But many of the products, food, textiles and ceramics,
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would have been the same.
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The immense trading activity around Tiwanaku was made possible
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by a very special form of transport.
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Cousins of the camel, llamas are still invaluable today
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in the rough Andean terrain.
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Experts believe that in the time of Tiwanaku,
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huge llama trains would have been
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continuously crisscrossing the Altiplano,
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carrying goods to and from the great metropolis.
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We know that upwards of two, three,
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perhaps even as many as five thousand animals
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were loaded up with a wide range of commodities,
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from brilliant textiles, to gold, to silver, to more ordinary goods,
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such as blocks of salt and foodstuffs.
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A staggering quantity of goods came into and flowed out of Tiwanaku.
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We know that Tiwanaku was the major trading center
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for the southern Andes.
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So the discoveries at Tiwanaku show it was, indeed,
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a vastly wealthy city and a center of trade.
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But Atlantis was also a great military power,
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with a huge standing army.
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Did the rulers of Tiwanaku, like the Atlantians,
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have the power to invade, conquer and dominate?
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Here, a warrior, depicted with a puma's face,
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holds a trophy, the severed head of his enemy.
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Piecing together evidence from art such as this,
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it has become apparent that Tiwanaku was, indeed,
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a military force to be reckoned with.
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Tiwanaku's kings were war lords.
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We know that at some point in its history,
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the city's kings conquered the entire Titicaca
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basin of Peru and Bolivia
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and then began to set up garrisons on the coast of Peru and Chile
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and as far south as northern Argentina.
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They also began to colonize this vast territory.
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So, in fact, Tiwanaku was a great military power.
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But military might was not the only reason
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the kings of Atlantis were able to rule over a large area.
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They were also divine and born of gods.
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Did the kings of Tiwanaku have such god-like status?
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The answer is yes.
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The power of the kings of Tiwanaku was not only military.
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They also were divine and born of religion,
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traces of which still remain in the Aymara culture.
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The Gateway of the Sun
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is a potent symbol of the city's religious importance,
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and it is thought to be a calendar.
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With the secret knowledge of
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what to reap and sow that the calendar gave them,
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the kings of Tiwanaku became a divine link
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between the gods and humans.
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Armed with this magical power,
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they were able to export their religion throughout the region.
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What, in fact, the kings of Tiwanaku
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were exporting with their religious ideas
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was an immensely powerful and influential State ideology.
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This ideology dominated a broad region
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of the southern and central Andes.
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And it was the power of religious ideas,
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in fact, rather than military force or coercion
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that permitted the kings of Tiwanaku
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to extend their dynasty for over five hundred years.
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Just like the kings of Atlantis, with their god-like status,
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the ruling dynasty of Tiwanaku was able to pass its sacred power
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from generation to generation.
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Tiwanaku is not far from the shores of Lake Titicaca,
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and the area around the Lake was its main sphere of influence.
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But its religious imagery and evidence of colonies
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have been found as far away
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as coastal Chile, Peru and northern Argentina.
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Tiwanaku was not merely a collection of temples,
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or even simply a large city.
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It was an immensely powerful empire that dominated the Andean region.
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There were many great cities
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on the scale of Plato's description of Atlantis
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in the New World,
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although Tiwanaku could not have been Atlantis because of its age.
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But what if it was born from the ashes
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of an earlier civilization based nearby?
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Then the theory that Atlantis could be in the New World
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might be more credible.
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In the tropical jungle area of Mexico,
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a people called the Olmec
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once undertook an immense effort of human endeavor.
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With a labor force of eighty thousand people
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working for an estimated eleven-million man-hours,
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they beat back the foliage to create a great settlement
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razed out of the jungle on earthworks.
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Today, it is archeologists like Ann Cyphers
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at the University of Mexico
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who are again digging and clearing at the San Lorenzo site
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in order to undertake
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the biggest-ever excavation of Olmec culture.
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It is an enormous task,
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because the area that the Olmec made into their settlement
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is a mound spread over several miles,
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most of which is hidden beneath dense vegetation.
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But one thing is already clear, the great age of the site.
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The Olmec culture at San Lorenzo dates to three thousand years ago,
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maybe a bit earlier.
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Prior to that fluorescence
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that occurred about three thousand years ago,
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there were pre-existing cultures here.
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And out of those native cultures, the Olmec developed.
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The Olmec flourished over a thousand years
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before Plato wrote down the Atlantis story.
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And as well as being of great antiquity,
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the Olmec clearly represent evidence of civilization.
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Although the tropical climate has destroyed much of what they built,
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research is revealing that
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the Olmec undoubtedly deserve that description.
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They created a striking and complex art style,
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building these colossal six and a half foot-high statues.
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The Olmec rulers had all the trappings of major civilization:
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a massive, organized labor force,
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proto-cities, a complex class system
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and a wide sphere of influence in the region.
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I think as time goes on and research continues,
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each day it becomes more and more surprising
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how sophisticated the Olmec culture really was.
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So we know now that
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civilization had begun in the Americas
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by the time of the proposed dates for Atlantis.
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But still, the mystery is not yet solved, nor the story finished.
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For there is a simple and obvious objection to the Americas' theory.
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How could the Egyptians or the Greeks
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have known about America?
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It was not until the age of Columbus,
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two thousand years later,
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that contacts between Europe and America became commonplace,
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making it an apparently impossible location for the lost city.
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But there are those who argue that
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we have been blinded by our ideas of history.
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They claim the Olmec left a clue,
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a clue about visitors from across the Atlantic long before Columbus.
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Why, they ask,
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do the faces of the Olmec colossal heads
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apparently not resemble natives of Central America?
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Professor Genoves is an anthropologist
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who believes that the Olmec colossal heads
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look like portraits of Africans.
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Some of these facial features certainly show evidence of a link,
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with Negroid groups or at least, what we associate with such groups.
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Looking at characteristics, like those we see here,
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we can see they are not typical of South America.
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Just as white people are not native to most of Africa,
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there were no black people in South America.
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It seems strange to ask when we see them,
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and so we have to ask what is going on?
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Could the Olmec heads depict African visitors
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from across the Atlantic?
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Other archeologists think
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it is more likely the statues are actually of Olmec kings,
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but they are heavily stylized.
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There are a number of theories regarding the colossal heads.
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I think that the most significant interpretation
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regarding them is that they are the portraits of rulers.
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But what of the appearance on Olmec art of bearded figures
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another oddity since natives in this region
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genetically do not have beards.
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Perhaps these are also depictions of foreigners
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or perhaps Olmec did have beards in the past?
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Again there is disagreement.
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The beards that we see on figures in Olmec art are interesting
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because in general the native populations here in mesoamerica,
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do not have a lot of facial hair.
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But that's talking about the people today.
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We don't know if that applies in the past.
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When we see a bearded figure or one with negroid features,
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it is difficult to accept that
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it could be a pure invention yet be so accurate.
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So if these features don't belong on this side of the Atlantic
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where could they possibly have come from?
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Well the answer is from the other side of the Atlantic.
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Whatever the truth behind the mystery of the Olmec statues,
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it has been shown that
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early transatlantic travel was at least technically possible.
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Professor Genoves proved it himself some twenty years ago
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when he crossed the ocean on a primitive reed boat,
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as one of the crew accompanying anthropologist, Thor Heyerdahl,