探索发现-寻找亚特兰提斯Discovery Atlantis04

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on the now historic Ra voyages.
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Added to the discovery of Viking
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and Roman artifacts in the Americas,
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the Professor thinks there is now good evidence
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for transatlantic travel.
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We have evidence from, morphology, archeology, ethnology,
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ethnography, linguistics, genetics, and even possibly from botany.
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Well, it adds up to a lot of evidence.
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If there was evidence of people reaching America
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thousands of years before Columbus,
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this could only have given rise back in Egypt
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to the story of Atlantis,
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if some of them had managed to get back, a more difficult journey.
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But there is another,
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even more surprising possible origin for Atlantis.
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Could American Indians have sailed east across the Atlantic Ocean
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and discovered Europe,
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taking stories of their civilizations with them?
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Some people think so.
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I think it is highly probable that
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some American Indians traveled eastbound across the Atlantic,
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as long as they were on the Gulf Stream.
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So anybody from the Caribbean up along the American coast
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to the Canadian/US border,
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where the Gulf Stream then starts swinging directly east,
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could have followed that moving river in the Ocean.
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And there is no reason why they should not have landed in Europe.
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People from the earliest American civilization,
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those in Central and South America, could only pick up the Gulf Stream
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if they could get as far as the Caribbean,
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a distance of nearly a thousand miles from the Gulf of Mexico,
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where the Olmecs lived.
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We know the Olmec certainly used boats and rafts
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to move stone and other goods around their territory
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in a substantial river trading system.
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The rivers they journeyed down flow straight out
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into the Gulf of Mexico.
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As this statue of a shark eating a man shows,
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they are known to have used the coastal areas
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for fishing and transport.
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But there is no direct evidence that they ventured out any further.
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There is no evidence that the Olmec navigated the oceans,
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in other words, that they were able to make contact
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with other continents or other areas,
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at a great distance.
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On the other hand, the Olmec's immediate successors in the region,
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the Maya, had managed to sail from Mexico to the Caribbean
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by the time Columbus arrived there.
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Their boats, said to be as large as Columbus' own ship,
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have not survived.
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But the record of their existence has.
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On Columbus' fourth voyage,
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he sailed into the southern Caribbean.
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He saw and noted in his journal a Mayan trading vessel.
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So, there was an ongoing commercial activity in the Caribbean
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at the time that Columbus met them,
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and a great deal of archaeological evidence that
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this goes back for many centuries.
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This is absolute proof of the degree to
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which some American Indian nations were seafaring.
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The exact sailing capacities of earlier American civilizations
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are still in doubt.
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But it looks as though they may well have been underestimated.
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After all, when Thor Heyerdahl wanted to build a reed boat
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seaworthy enough to cross the Atlantic,
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it was to the fishermen of Lake Titicaca
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that he came for the answer.
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Here, in the region of Tiwanaku,
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were the only people who still had the necessary skills.
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The extent of ancient contacts across the oceans
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is a lost part of history.
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But there are mysterious links suggesting they could,
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in fact, have been quite common.
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One such link is connected to the culture of Tiwanaku itself.
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The kings of Tiwanaku, like the pharaohs of Egypt,
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were mummified after death.
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That both cultures practiced mummification
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might be just a coincidence.
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But another startling new link between these two great empires
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has been discovered which cannot be called a coincidence.
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In the market at Tiwanaku,
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the Aymara women are doing a brisk business selling coca leaves.
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Chewing the leaves releases the cocaine contained within them.
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And this use of coca has always been a vital part of religion
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and culture in the Andes.
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In fact, chewing coca was a habit of the kings of Tiwanaku.
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Statues often show them with a lump of leaves in their cheeks.
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But given that the coca plant is only found in South America,
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without transatlantic travel it would be inexplicable
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to find it being used in other continents
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thousands of years ago.
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Yet recently chemists carrying out tests on Egyptian mummies
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found molecules of cocaine in their bodies,
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along with nicotine, perhaps from tobacco, another American plant.
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Since the mummies spanned a period of a thousand years,
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this discovery could suggest frequent trade
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and contact with the Americas.
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The recent detection in Egyptian mummies of the cocaine,
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is an additional piece of evidence
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of this transoceanic trade,
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because coca is indigenous to America.
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So, somebody must have been bringing it across.
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So, despite what we have been taught in school,
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early transatlantic travel is a possibility,
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one that could solve
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the mystery of Plato's lost island continent
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a continent that may, in fact,
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have been there all the time: America.
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People have thought that
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Plato's description of Atlantis made no sense.
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Once people understand that
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Egyptians and Greeks knew very well about America,
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then everything else follows,
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and it all makes perfectly good sense.
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With transoceanic contact, with great empires
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and with civilization in the right time frame,
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we can imagine that the remains of the lost city of Atlantis
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lie somewhere in the Americas.
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Lake Titicaca, of such importance to the Tiwanaku empire,
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is one of the deepest lakes in the world,
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and it has barely been explored.
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But what divers have discovered are artifacts from the Tiwanaku period,
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including stone boxes with offerings to the gods.
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The Tiwanacans put them there,
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because they believed that life began in the lake.
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Perhaps there was more to this belief than simple religious myth.
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Perhaps it is a story about an earlier culture, now submerged.
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Could it be that beneath the surface of Lake Titicaca
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there lies the lost city of Atlantis?
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It is not unreasonable to dream it could be lying there,
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waiting to be discovered.
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Some people say Atlantis is just a dream,
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and that this is why lost civilizations everywhere
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have echoes of the legendary empire.
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Yet none are a perfect match.
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If so, it is one of humankind's most powerful dreams.
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The search for Atlantis will never end,
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because Atlantis is within us.
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Everybody needs to dream of an ideal place,
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needs to dream of a paradise.
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And that is what Atlantis is.
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But if it is a dream,
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the story of Atlantis is also solid
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and real enough to keep searching on,
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in the hope that one day it might be found.