探索发现-一代女王Queen Who Would Be King01

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For more than a thousand years Egypt had been ruled by men.
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Then came Hatshepsut.
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She was the daughter of a king and wife of a king,
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but that wasn't enough for Hatshepsut.
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This is a story of incredible achievement, secret desire
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and a burning ambition to be king.
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This is the story of a woman who went for it all.
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There's a mystery about Hatshepsut
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that begins here at the temple of Deir el-Bahri.
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It's across the river from Thebes,
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the ancient religious capitol of Egypt.
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One hundred and seventy years ago,
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a young Frenchman, Champollion,
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walked down this corridor.
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He had just cracked the hieroglyphic code
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and became the first man in two thousand years
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to read Hatshepsut's name
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When Champollion came here he uncovered a mystery.
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There were two kings on the wall.
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Now one of the kings he knew; Tuthmosis I I I.
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He had seen his name up and down the Nile
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and knew he was a great king.
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But the second one he had never heard of. King Hatshepsut.
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Now the thing that puzzled Champollion was that
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wherever there were two kings together,
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Hatshepsut was always taking the place of honor,
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in front of the other king.
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Then things got really weird.
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This is his journal, this is Champollion's journal.
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And over here, he recorded the inscriptions,
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the cartouches, the names,
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and he noted that wherever there was the bearded pharaoh,
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the verbs and nouns were in the feminine.
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There's Hatshepsut.
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She's wearing the beard of the pharaoh
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and that's no miniskirt.
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That's the kilt of a king of Egypt.
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It was all confusing
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and Champollion never figured it out.
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It took Egyptologists another hundred years to do that.
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Hatshepsut, the queen of Egypt had decided to wear men's clothins
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and declare herself pharaoh.
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Hatshepsut's father was buried in a tomb cut into the mountain.
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This is where the treasures of Tutankahmen were discovered,
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where Ramses the Great was laid to rest,
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and it's all because of Hatshepsut's father,
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the Pharaoh Tuthmosis I.
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A thousand years before Hatshepsut was born,
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the pharaohs were buried in pyramids in the desert.
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But by the time Hatshepsut's father was king,
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all the pyramids had been robbed.
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Egypt had suffered periods of turmoil and lawlessness
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and was just returning to stability.
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Hatshepsut's father needed a place
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where he and his treasures could be buried safely.
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Tuthmosis decided on a secret burial
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in a remote valley where nothing grew
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and no one would ever want to live.
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A site that would become known to the world
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as The Valley of the Kings.
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It was a bold venture but Hatshepsut's father was a bold man,
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so the tomb was built and Tuthmosis became the first pharaoh of Egypt
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to be buried in The Valley of the Kings.
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Tuthmosis was a fearless military commander.
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As soon as he became pharaoh,
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he led an expedition south into Nubia,
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now the Sudan, to quell a rebellion.
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He had to pass four dangerous cataracts,
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each of which could smash a ship to bits.
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He led his troops deeper into Nubia than any pharaoh had ever gone
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and defeated a confederation of Nubian tribes.
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Hatshepsut's father was a tough man.
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Tuthmosis and his queen had five children.
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But Hatshepsut was the only one to survive her parents.
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It was in Hatshepsut's veins alone that pure royal blood flowed.
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But could a woman become king of Egypt?
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Choosing a king was complicated,
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often involving intrigue and power struggles.
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It was the kind of issue decided
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within the closed confines of a mud-brick palace.
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This is a royal palace. It's a maze of tiny rooms.
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You see, the king had several wives so he wanted plenty of space.
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Here's the throne room.
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It's where the king would've held audiences.
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It's amazingly small, isn't it?
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But the walls were mostly mud-brick,
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so they couldn't hold up a really big ceiling.
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But wait till you see the bathroom.
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It's practically camping out,
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but it was state of the art for ancient Egypt.
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See this wall? It's stone, it's a luxury.
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If you took too many baths in a mud-brick bathroom,
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you wouldn't have any walls left.
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There's no word in Ancient Egyptian for queen.
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What the hieroglyphs really say is "King's Great Wife".
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There was only one King's Great Wife at any one time,
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but beneath her were minor wives and beneath them, concubines.
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And all of them hoped that one day their sons would be king of Egypt.
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Hatshepsut was a royal kid.
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She would have grown up in a palace like this.
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Lots of women, lots of children, lots of rooms, lots of intrigue.
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She was undoubtedly bright
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and she should have succeeded her father as king,
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if she were a boy.
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But the King's Great Wife didn't have any sons that lived,
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so the line of succession wasn't clear.
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This was the kind of time
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when the son of a minor wife could become pharaoh of Egypt.
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When Hatshepsut was twelve years old
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her father died,
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leaving the young girl as the only pure royal heir.
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But Egypt needed a king.
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So Hatshepsut was married to her half brother, Tuthmosis,
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named after his father.
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He was only half royal, the son of a minor wife,
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so he needed Hatshepsut if he were to rule as king.
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Tuthmosis I I was in his twenties when he married Hatshepsut,
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and so the twelve year old girl became queen of Egypt.
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There is little positive that can be said of Tuthmosis I I.
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His mummy suggests he was far from the kind of man a woman dreams of.
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Hatshepsut's husband was a unhealthy,
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frail man with little musculature.
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He was in his forties when he died.
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Bald, his body dotted with scabs.
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He'd built no great monuments, raised no obelisks to the heavens
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and conquered no foreign lands.
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He seems to have stayed at home when the army went on campaigns,
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certainly not the kind of man Hatshepsut's father was.
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The best that can be said of his reign is that it was uneventful.
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This must have been quite a change for Hatshepsut,
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raised in a palace where great deeds
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and bold innovations were the norm.
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She and Tuthmosis had only one child; a daughter, Nefrure.
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By the time Tuthmosis died,
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Hatshepsut had been married to him for twenty years.
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It must've been a long twenty years.
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But at least she was now free.
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She was thirty-two years old, the mother of a young daughter,
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queen of Egypt and in the prime of her life.
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Now she would show Egypt
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what the daughter of a great king could do.
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She began the most incredible building program
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any queen had ever undertaken.
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Deir el-Bahri was Hatshepsut's mortuary temple
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where she could be worshipped after her death.
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No queen had ever built anything like this for herself
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and Egypt must have been stunned.
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Nestled in the mountains,
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its clear, straight line allow it to stand out
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against the rugged background.
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I think it's the most beautiful temple ever built in Ancient Egypt.
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For the previous century,
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Egypt's pharaohs had been preoccupied with war,
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fending off enemies.
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This is the first major building project since the turmoil.
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It's a beautiful work of art and a strong political statement.
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Divine order will be restored.
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The Queen of Egypt is capable of great things.
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It was the beginning of a wonderful new life.
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For twenty years, Hatshepsut had been the dutiful,
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silent wife of Tuthmosis I I.
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Now, the energy she had inherited
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from her father was going to be expressed.
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Deir el-Bahri was Hatshepsut's coming out announcement.
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Once again, royal workshops began producing
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official sculptures of the ruler of Egypt.
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But Hatshepsut's portraits were different from
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those of her male predecessors.
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She was shown as slender with an aquiline nose and full cheeks.
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A young woman, fresh and alive.
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For the next thousand years, her statues would set the standard.
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But wait until you see her obelisks,
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one of the great engineering achievements of the ancient world.
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Obelisks are one of the greatest achievements of the ancient world.
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Hatshepsut was especially proud of the ones
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she erected at Karnak Temple.
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If you want to see just how big an obelisk is,
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there's one lying unfinished in the quarry,
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still attached to the granite.
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Every Egyptian obelisk was cut from the same granite quarries in Aswan,
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about a hundred and fifty miles south of Thebes.
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Granite was the only stone strong enough for such a tall monument.
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This baby weighs as much as three jumbo jets.